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Volume 13 in the "Major Conservative and Libertarian thinkers" series focuses on F.A. Hayek, the influential member of the Austrian School of Economics. Hayek.
Table of contents
- Major Conservative and Libertarian Thinkers in 20 Volumes : 19 Volume Set
- F. A. Hayek
- F. A. Hayek by A. J. Tebble | Waterstones
- Who is Jordan Peterson?
- 2. Progress
After editing a book on John Stuart Mill 's letters he planned to publish two books on the liberal order, The Constitution of Liberty and "The Creative Powers of a Free Civilization" eventually the title for the second chapter of The Constitution of Liberty. Hayek was concerned "with that condition of men in which coercion of some by others is reduced as much as is possible in society".
From until his retirement in , he was a professor at the University of Freiburg , West Germany, where he began work on his next book, Law, Legislation and Liberty. Hayek regarded his years at Freiburg as "very fruitful". Primary drafts of the book were completed by , but Hayek chose to rework his drafts and finally brought the book to publication in three volumes in , and He became professor at the University of Salzburg from to ; he then returned to Freiburg, where he spent the rest of his days.
When Hayek left Salzburg in , he wrote, "I made a mistake in moving to Salzburg". The economics department was small, and the library facilities were inadequate.
- 1. Price Signals and Spontaneous Order.
- For Love or Money.
- Tis the Season.
- Promise of the Future (short story).
- Fisheries Subsidies, Sustainable Development and the WTO.
Hayek later sent him a Russian translation of The Road to Serfdom. Template:Expand section In , in a paper on The Denationalization of Money ,  Hayek advocated that rather than re-instituting a government-mandated gold standard, a free market in money be allowed to develop, with issuers of money competing with each other to produce the best, most stable and healthy currency.
This sparked an entire school of thought within economics, Free Banking , with banks not being banned from having fractional reserves as Rothbard advocated, but instead being free to experiment and discover the best method of conducting business. Before he had finished, Thatcher "reached into her briefcase and took out a book.
It was Hayek's The Constitution of Liberty. Interrupting our pragmatist, she held the book up for all of us to see.
Writing to The Times , Hayek said, "May one who has devoted a large part of his life to the study of the history and the principles of liberalism point out that a party that keeps a socialist government in power has lost all title to the name 'Liberal'. Certainly no liberal can in future vote 'Liberal'". In , Hayek came into conflict with the Liberal Party leader, David Steel , who claimed that liberty was possible only with "social justice and an equitable distribution of wealth and power, which in turn require a degree of active government intervention" and that the Conservative Party were more concerned with the connection between liberty and private enterprise than between liberty and democracy.
Hayek claimed that a limited democracy might be better than other forms of limited government at protecting liberty but that an unlimited democracy was worse than other forms of unlimited government because "its government loses the power even to do what it thinks right if any group on which its majority depends thinks otherwise".
Major Conservative and Libertarian Thinkers in 20 Volumes : 19 Volume Set
Hayek stated that if the Conservative leader had said "that free choice is to be exercised more in the market place than in the ballot box, she has merely uttered the truism that the first is indispensable for individual freedom while the second is not: free choice can at least exist under a dictatorship that can limit itself but not under the government of an unlimited democracy which cannot".
Hayek in later life. Courtesy Wikimedia Commons. President Ronald Reagan at his time listed Hayek as among the two or three people who most influenced his philosophy, and welcomed Hayek to the White House as a special guest. Here are some supporting examples:.
Hayek's principal investigations in economics concerned capital , money, and the business cycle. Mises had earlier applied the concept of marginal utility to the value of money in his Theory of Money and Credit , in which he also proposed an explanation for "industrial fluctuations" based on the ideas of the old British Currency School and of Swedish economist Knut Wicksell.
Hayek used this body of work as a starting point for his own interpretation of the business cycle, elaborating what later became known as the " Austrian Theory of the Business Cycle ". In his Prices and Production , Hayek argued that the business cycle resulted from the central bank 's inflationary credit expansion and its transmission over time, leading to a capital misallocation caused by the artificially low interest rates.
Hayek claimed that "the past instability of the market economy is the consequence of the exclusion of the most important regulator of the market mechanism, money, from itself being regulated by the market process.
F. A. Hayek
In accordance with the reasoning later outlined in his essay The Use of Knowledge in Society , Hayek argued that a monopolistic governmental agency like a central bank can neither possess the relevant information which should govern supply of money, nor have the ability to use it correctly. Eager to promote alternatives to what he regarded as the narrow approach of the school of economic thought that then dominated the English-speaking academic world centered at the University of Cambridge and deriving largely from the work of Alfred Marshall , Robbins invited Hayek to join the faculty at LSE, which he did in According to Nicholas Kaldor, Hayek's theory of the time-structure of capital and of the business cycle initially "fascinated the academic world" and appeared to offer a less "facile and superficial" understanding of macroeconomics than the Cambridge school's.
Hayek was one of the leading academic critics of collectivism in the 20th century. Hayek argued that all forms of collectivism even those theoretically based on voluntary cooperation could only be maintained by a central authority of some kind. In Hayek's view, the central role of the state should be to maintain the rule of law , with as little arbitrary intervention as possible.
In his popular book, The Road to Serfdom and in subsequent academic works, Hayek argued that socialism required central economic planning and that such planning in turn leads towards totalitarianism. Hayek posited that a central planning authority would have to be endowed with powers that would impact and ultimately control social life, because the knowledge required for centrally planning an economy is inherently decentralized, and would need to be brought under control.
Building on the earlier work of Ludwig von Mises and others, Hayek also argued that while in centrally planned economies an individual or a select group of individuals must determine the distribution of resources, these planners will never have enough information to carry out this allocation reliably. This argument, first proposed by Max Weber , says that the efficient exchange and use of resources can be maintained only through the price mechanism in free markets see economic calculation problem. In The Use of Knowledge in Society , Hayek argued that the price mechanism serves to share and synchronize local and personal knowledge, allowing society's members to achieve diverse, complicated ends through a principle of spontaneous self-organization.
He used the term catallaxy to describe a "self-organizing system of voluntary co-operation. Hayek also wrote that the state has a role to play in the economy, and specifically, in creating a "safety net". He wrote, "There is no reason why, in a society which has reached the general level of wealth ours has, the first kind of security should not be guaranteed to all without endangering general freedom; that is: some minimum of food, shelter and clothing, sufficient to preserve health.
Nor is there any reason why the state should not help to organize a comprehensive system of social insurance in providing for those common hazards of life against which few can make adequate provision. Hayek viewed the free price system not as a conscious invention that which is intentionally designed by man ,but as spontaneous order or what he referred to as "that which is the result of human action but not of human design". Thus, Hayek put the price mechanism on the same level as, for example, language. Hayek attributed the birth of civilization to private property in his book The Fatal Conceit He explained that price signals are the only means of enabling each economic decision maker to communicate tacit knowledge or dispersed knowledge to each other, in order to solve the economic calculation problem.
Perhaps more fully than any other economist, Hayek investigated the choice theory of investment. He examined the inter-relations between non-permanent production goods and "latent" or potentially economic permanent resources — building on the choice theoretical insight that, "processes that take more time will evidently not be adopted unless they yield a greater return than those that take less time. Hayek's work on the microeconomics of the choice theoretics of investment, non-permanent goods, potential permanent resources, and economically-adapted permanent resources mark a central dividing point between his work in areas of macroeconomics and that of most all other economists.
Hayek's work on the macroeconomic subjects of central planning , trade cycle theory, the division of knowledge, and entrepreneurial adaptation especially, differ greatly from the opinions of macroeconomic "Marshallian" economists in the tradition of John Maynard Keynes and the microeconomic " Walrasian " economists in the tradition of Abba Lerner.
F. A. Hayek by A. J. Tebble | Waterstones
In the latter half of his career Hayek made a number of contributions to social and political philosophy , which he based on his views on the limits of human knowledge,  and the idea of spontaneous order in social institutions. He argues in favor of a society organized around a market order, in which the apparatus of state is employed almost though not entirely exclusively to enforce the legal order consisting of abstract rules, and not particular commands necessary for a market of free individuals to function. These ideas were informed by a moral philosophy derived from epistemological concerns regarding the inherent limits of human knowledge.
Hayek argued that his ideal individualistic, free-market polity would be self-regulating to such a degree that it would be 'a society which does not depend for its functioning on our finding good men for running it'. Hayek disapproved of the notion of ' social justice '.
He compared the market to a game in which 'there is no point in calling the outcome just or unjust'  and argued that 'social justice is an empty phrase with no determinable content';  likewise "the results of the individual's efforts are necessarily unpredictable, and the question as to whether the resulting distribution of incomes is just has no meaning.
This would produce a kind of society which in all essential respects would be the opposite of a free society. With regard to a safety net, Hayek advocated "some provision for those threatened by the extremes of indigence or starvation, be it only in the interest of those who require protection against acts of desperation on the part of the needy. In his philosophy of science , which has much in common with that of his good friend Karl Popper , Hayek was highly critical of what he termed scientism : a false understanding of the methods of science that has been mistakenly forced upon the social sciences, but that is contrary to the practices of genuine science.
Usually, scientism involves combining the philosophers' ancient demand for demonstrative justification with the associationists' false view that all scientific explanations are simple two-variable linear relationships. Hayek points out that much of science involves the explanation of complex multivariable and nonlinear phenomena, and the social science of economics and undesigned order compares favourably with such complex sciences as Darwinian biology.
In The Sensory Order: An Inquiry into the Foundations of Theoretical Psychology , Hayek independently developed a " Hebbian learning " model of learning and memory Template:Spaced ndashan idea which he first conceived in , prior to his study of economics. Hayek's expansion of the "Hebbian synapse" construction into a global brain theory has received continued attention     in neuroscience, cognitive science , computer science, behavioural science, and evolutionary psychology , by scientists such as Edelman, and Fuster.
Alain de Benoist of the Nouvelle Droite New Right produced a highly critical essay on Hayek's work in an issue of Telos , citing the flawed assumptions behind Hayek's idea of "spontaneous order" and the authoritarian, totalizing implications of his free-market ideology. Keynes asked his friend Piero Sraffa to respond publicly to Hayek's challenge; instead of formulating an alternative theory, Sraffa elaborated on the logical inconsistencies of Hayek's argument, especially concerning the effect of inflation-induced "forced savings" on the capital sector and about the definition of a "natural" interest rate in a growing economy.
Who is Jordan Peterson?
Hayek continued his research on monetary and capital theory, revising his theories of the relations between credit cycles and capital structure in Profits, Interest and Investment and The Pure Theory of Capital , but his reputation as an economic theorist had by then fallen so much that those works were largely ignored, except for scathing critiques by Nicholas Kaldor. Hayek never produced the book-length treatment of "the dynamics of capital" that he had promised in the Pure Theory of Capital.
After , he continued to publish works on the economics of information, political philosophy, the theory of law, and psychology, but seldom on macroeconomics. At the University of Chicago, Hayek was not part of the economics department and did not influence the rebirth of neoclassical theory which took place there see Chicago school of economics. When, in , he shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics with Gunnar Myrdal , the latter complained about being paired with an "ideologue".
Milton Friedman declared himself "an enormous admirer of Hayek, but not for his economics. I think Prices and Production is a very flawed book. I think his [ Pure Theory of Capital ] is unreadable. On the other hand, The Road to Serfdom is one of the great books of our time. In he wrote to The Times that he had 'not been able to find a single person even in much maligned Chile who did not agree that personal freedom was much greater under Pinochet than it had been under Allende.
Asked about the liberal, non-democratic rule by a Chilean interviewer, Hayek is translated from German to Spanish to English as having said, "As long term institutions, I am totally against dictatorships. But a dictatorship may be a necessary system for a transitional period. My personal impression — and this is valid for South America — is that in Chile, for example, we will witness a transition from a dictatorial government to a liberal government.
Hayek, of course, had lived his early life under the mostly liberal, but mostly non-democratic, rule of the Austro-Hungarian Emperor, and Hayek had seen democracy descend into illiberal tyranny in a host of Central and Eastern European countries. By , Chile had fulfilled Hayek's prediction by transitioning to a democratic state as established in the Constitution of Chile approved during the Pinochet regime.
In he was elected as a Fellow of the British Academy ,  after he was nominated for membership by Keynes. The reasons for the two of them winning the prize are described in the Nobel committee's press release.